The first step in design strategies for adaptation is to collect information. There are multiple methods of data collection, including many types of equipment, from tidal gauges to satellite remote sensors. There are also more ways of analysing and presenting this data using sophisticated computer graphics programs, known as geographic information systems (GIS).

Technological innovation gives ways to solve environmental challenges. An example could be the new approaches to measuring and reducing emissions of methane, which are responsible for a quarter of all the warming the environment is experiencing today. Researchers use a range of technologies, including sensors mounted on drones, airplanes, and even Google Street View cars, to measure emissions of every link in the supply chain. Through reliable, low-cost sensors, remote monitoring, and oilfield internet-of-things, energy companies could reduce their emissions and eliminate waste of saleable gas at the same time. In this sense, companies such as Shell and Equinor are testing continuous monitoring technologies, and others such as Stanford University and ExxonMobil look at mobile detection technologies to be used in aircraft and drones.

Advanced sensor technologies help to create a healthier environment, for example Google cars mapping air pollution and its health effects or the wearable bracelets designed to track the daily chemical exposure. Elsewhere, retailers and consumer brands are using blockchain technologies to improve accountability and sustainability across extensive supply chains. For example, sensors are used to help farmers reduce the amount of chemicals on their fields. Pushing the envelope even further, emissions could be also detected and measured by means of satellite-based approaches that can continuously map and measure emissions with exacting precision almost anywhere on the planet.

Main stakeholders doing R&D: Shell, Equinor, ExxonMobil

Main stakeholders in the market: Shell, Equinor, ExxonMobil