Smart cities are based on well connected, sustainable, and resilient technologies allowing the information to be available and findable. Significant amounts of data are generated and two key trends make this data collection and availability possible: Internet of Things (IoT) and Open Data.
All the smart solutions in smart cities are based on IoT where they are connected and smart enough to decide their performance. For that, data is collected through data-acquisition devices such as sensors. Processes are improved based on its environment and for a control system to be aware of the environment, an array of sensors usually is responsible for the collection of the required data. Sensors capture parameters of a physical nature to an electronic signal, which can be interpreted by humans or can be fed into an autonomous system. Among these signals, light, pressure, temperature, humidity, and moisture are included. The data shows the characteristics of big data: high volume, real-time (velocity), extremely heterogeneous in sources, formats, and characteristics (availability).
The integration of these technologies results in intelligent cities, and this intelligence is translated into smarter and safer cities. Big data can, if managed and analysed well, offer insights and economic value that cities and city stakeholders can use to improve efficiency and lead to innovative new services looking for improving the lives of citizens. For example, through ICTs and cloud computing it is possible to perform the analysis of the energy demand pattern and allow resource optimization with the help of analytics and deep learning. Every device involved in the smart city needs to be connected to each other allowing managing resources of a megacity population.
At this point, it is also important the role played by geospatial technology, which provides location allowing pinpointing exactly on the need so that better solutions can be created. Whichever is the solution, smart cities are digital revolutions generating a huge amount of data that need to be processed and generate information in return. For that, Artificial Intelligence makes sense out of the data, for example, allowing intelligent traffic management or better management of the power grid. Data cube systems (e.g. rasdaman) support this by making global EO time-series data ready for convenient and scalable on-demand analytics and fusion with federated data sources.
Regarding blockchain, its application is new to the smart city concept and secures data flow. Its integration into smart cities could improve the connection of all the services while boosting security and transparency. Blockchain is expected to influence cities through smart contracts, which help with billing, processing transactions, and handling facilities management. This technology can also be used for energy sharing.
Main stakeholders doing R&D: Schneider Electric, LG Chem, GMV, SAP, Emergya, Data Republic, P-Pulse, Entry-Scape, Vawlt, Sigfox, Virtual Open Systems, rasdaman
Main stakeholders in the market: Robert Bosch, Electronics Trafic S.A., Ampere Power Energy, Indertec, Azigrene Consultores, Pavener Servicios Energéticos, Cumulus City, Endurance Motive S.L., Horizon Proyectos Energéticos – KLENERGY, Atrae Foro de Energía, Jonsok Autoconsumo, Nayar, WITRAC, GMV, Rivas Robotics, Mafelec, SENSA Servicios Eléctricos